I’ve always heard that the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting to get different results. Doesn’t that perfectly sum up the approach some companies take to diversity?
They talk about doing something different and make public statements about the importance of diversity but when you look at their hiring and promotion practices the metrics show little to no change. Simply put, if you keep doing the same thing, you’re going to get the same results.
Now, more than ever we need to double down on diversity in order to make real progress. Like so many other lessons, if we don’t learn from history we are doomed to repeat it.
One study looking at the impact of the 2008 recession on diversity in law firms found that job losses in the recession significantly rolled back the diversity and inclusion progress made from 1988-2008. Sadly it took 11 years to regain the ground lost; racial diversity did not return to 2008 levels until 2019.
Likewise, McKinsey & Company and LeanIn.Org’s 2019 Women in the Workplace survey (https://mck.co/3pfrLVb) found that despite the fact that there is an increasing number of women in the workforce (women held more payroll jobs than men as of December 2019) “parity remains out of reach. Women—and particularly women of color—are underrepresented at every level“ of corporate America.
If that news isn’t disheartening enough, the COVID job loss reports show a sharp reversal of the gains that had been made with some calling this recession a “shecession” because of the disproportionate impact it has had on working women, especially women of color.
As leaders, we must work to improve diversity and inclusion in our hiring and promotion practices (more on that in a minute) and we must work to stop or at least slow down the involuntary exit of women from the workforce. I say involuntary because many of these women do not necessarily want to exit the workforce; rather, they feel that they must choose between having a career and taking care of their families. This isn’t a choice they should feel they have to make!
One way we can change this is by being thoughtful in how we implement our return to work plans. Even though some employers may be ready to have their employees return to working in the office, some female employees, especially those that serve as primary caregivers in their households, may not be able to leave the house with schools doing remote learning and limited options for daycare.
Our return to work approach should offer a variety of options for people who want to return to the office as well as those who can’t yet return. Moreover, we need to practice inclusivity to ensure that remote employees do not feel left out, penalized, or passed over for projects and/or promotions in favor of those who returned to work in the office.
In regard to our long term approach, perhaps it’s time to rethink our approach to diversity. We need to do something different than we’re doing now; we can’t keep doing the same thing and expect to get different results. One consideration is to think about how we hold company leadership accountable for progress toward diversity and inclusion goals.
While many companies set diversity goals and form women’s initiatives and other similar programs, there’s little done to ensure that their leadership and employees are reaching out of their comfort zone (e.g. hiring someone you already know) in their hiring and promotion practices. If these companies are serious about diversity why not link it to performance goals or compensation criteria?
Deloitte’s 2017 Global Human Capital Trends research found that while 78% of companies that responded believed that diversity and inclusion was a competitive advantage, only 6% actually tied diversity outcomes to compensation.
The financial case for diversity is clear. Companies with higher diversity among their executive leadership have better revenue margin and profitability. “[C]ompanies with top quartile representation of women in executive committees have been shown to perform better than companies with no women at the top—by some estimates with as much as a 47% premium on average return on equity.
Links also exist between having more women directors and corporate sustainability, as well as with economic growth, since more diverse leadership teams can cater to a broader array of stakeholder needs and concerns.” (https://bit.ly/38uamBn)
Likewise, McKinsey’s January 2018 report Delivering Through Diversity, found that companies with culturally and ethnically diverse executive teams were 33% more likely to see better-than-average profits. If greater diversity leads to greater profitability then why do so few companies include it as part of their compensation criteria?
Another approach some companies have taken is to regularly share meaningful data with their shareholders and the general public (which also includes potential future employees) on their diversity goals and performance toward those goals. Google, for example, publishes an annual diversity report.
There are a lot of approaches companies can take to improve diversity and inclusion; this article only lists a few. If we’re going to get serious about progress on diversity and inclusion goals we’re going to need more than a goal; we’re going to need accountability and ownership.
Original article published in LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/we-need-do-something-different-regard-diversity-sondra-radcliffe/
It’s graduation season and even though the celebrations may look different this year, I think that it’s important for us to pause and celebrate the graduating class. They’ve worked hard to get to this point and we shouldn’t let the shadow of uncertainty for what’s next eclipse the joy of this occasion.
As a parent of a graduating senior, I’m especially conscious of the impact COVID-19 will have on these young men and women and the obstacles ahead of them.
High school graduates are uncertain as to whether they will get to experience college life on campus or whether they will continue online learning or some hybrid thereof. Some are considering a gap year or foregoing a traditional college experience altogether in favor of online programs.
College graduates are looking for jobs in an economy with roughly 15% unemployment. As a result of the economic shutdown and resulting high unemployment, jobs are harder to come by and graduates may be forced to take lower-paying jobs or jobs below their skills set.
This will likely impact not only their current income but their retirement income as well since they will likely make lower contributions to their retirement accounts or delay saving altogether. The statistics can be disheartening if you allow yourself to dwell on them.
In our family, however, we choose to focus on the positive because we believe your mindset can determine your future. Henry Ford once said, “Whether you think you can, or think you can’t, you’re right.”
With the closure of non-essential businesses and the inability to spend time with their friends due to social distancing, our kids have spent more time watching movies together the last several weekends. We found some great, inspirational stories and which also prompted some quality discussions with our kids about values, work-ethic, passion, and attitude.
Sometimes I think we focus on grades too much and soft skills too little. I have been guilty of this since it’s the grades and the test scores that colleges look at for admission decisions; yet in the work world, I care very little about a graduate’s GPA.
I care more about their work ethic, problem-solving skills, communication, teamwork, adaptability, and perseverance. So here’s some advice to the class of 2020 and just for fun, I’ve included movie references for both illustration and entertainment.
Greater (about football player Brandon Burlsworth): From a young age Burlsworth wanted to play football for the University of Alabama. In his youth, he was not particularly athletic or talented but he was determined and had a work ethic that matched his determination.
Believing he could achieve his dreams, Burlsworth bets on himself using all the money he can come up with to fund one year at the University of Alabama and a walk-on spot on the school’s football team. Burlsworth’s bet (and a lot of hard work) pay off and he secures a scholarship for his remaining years at the University of Alabama.
Burlsworth completes his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees while playing football and goes from the walk-on to an All-American player and NFL draft pick. Moreover, his hard work and the results he achieves inspire his teammates and the team pursues a run at the national championship in his senior year.
The takeaways from this story for the class of 2020: (1) don’t let others’ disbelief discount your dreams or your abilities; (2) be coachable: no matter how smart you are, there is always something you can learn from others; (3) a strong work ethic can make what seems impossible, possible (4) do more than is expected of you and (5) lead by example.
The Rocket (about a high school football player turned cross-country runner): The Rocket tells the story of Joshua Davis, a teen football star who has put a ton of time and effort into developing his skills only to be told he can no longer play football after a fall from a moving vehicle leaves him with a serious brain injury.
After the accident, Davis must pivot and recast his dreams, identity, and aspirations to something new. With the prompting of the school’s cross-country coach, Davis decides to give running a try and applies the same discipline and hard work he relied on in football to help his team win the State Championship.
The takeaways from this story for the class of 2020: (1) you’ve got to put in the time if you want to see the results and (2) don’t let a pivot deter you from greatness, preserve and keep going. As Michael Jordan once said “Obstacles don’t have to stop you. If you run into a wall, don’t turn around and give up. Figure out how to climb it, go through it, or work around it.”
Soul Surfer (about surfer Bethany Hamilton): Soul Surfer tells the story of Bethany Hamilton who lost her left arm at the age of 13 during a shark attack. Despite the odds, Bethany returns to surfing overcoming a number of obstacles to become a professional surfer. Since her attack, Hamilton has placed in a number of world surfing competitions and was the first female surfer to surf in the Rip Curl Cup in 2012.
The takeaways from this story for the class of 2020: (1) be courageous, (2) don’t give up on your dreams; (3) attitude is everything. “It’s not whether you get knocked down, it’s whether you get back up” (Vince Lombardi).
So, to the graduating class of 2020, dream big, work hard and when you get knocked down, get back up, dust yourself off, re-calibrate if you need to, and keep going!
Original article published in LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/commencement-advice-class-2020-sondra-radcliffe/
As a former practicing attorney, I was educated in the Socratic Method which essentially means that the instructor teaches by asking questions as opposed to lecturing. By asking questions the instructor draws out ideas for discussion and debate which stimulates critical thinking and a challenge or reasoned support of the ideas being discussed.
Outside of law school and perhaps my undergraduate philosophy courses, I haven’t seen this method of teaching used very often, but perhaps it should be. What would happen if we asked more questions in the workplace to stimulate critical thinking? Are we taking away teachable moments and valuable learning opportunities from our employees by rushing in with the answer?
If you’re trying to lead with questions rather than answers, here are some ideas to get you started as you work to be more purposeful in pausing to ask questions, engage your team’s critical thinking, and guiding them to solve their own problems.
Context Questions: By asking questions I ensure that I understand the context or background of the issue so that when I offer advice or guide them toward help, it’s appropriately tailored for the situation at hand. This has the dual benefit of forcing the other person to clearly articulate the problem which sometimes provides the clarity they needed or helps them see the issue is smaller and more easily managed than they first believed.
Alignment Questions: Repeating back what you heard them say and asking questions to expand or clarify what you heard and what you believe they are asking of you can be powerful in getting clarity. This also forces you to actively listen which means you aren’t thinking about what you are going to say or jumping in with solutions before they’ve fully explained their problem.
Framing Questions: Framing questions help you get to their underlying beliefs, motivations, or attitudes about the problem. Sometimes the way we have framed an issue limits our ability to see potential solutions as applicable to that situation or problem. In those cases, reframing the issue can be a critical first step toward finding a solution.
Brainstorming Questions: Brainstorming questions are another helpful tool to move past limiting beliefs. Detaching from the problem and simply brainstorming all the possible ideas without limitations on what’s practical or probable sometimes help you arrive at ideas you otherwise would not have thought of.
Resources Questions: Sometimes the most important question you can ask is “What do you need from me?” or “How can I help?” Many of us have a natural inclination to jump in with a solution and try and solve the problem but maybe all they need is a sounding board to bounce their solutions off of or someone to challenge and pressure test their solution for flaws. Maybe all they need is an introduction to a resource outside their network or to have you point them in the right direction of getting the help they need.
As the Spanish philosopher Maimonides said, “give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a life time.” If we’re going to develop strong leaders we have to ensure we’re putting in the work to teach them to fish. This requires leaders to hold their ideas and opinions to allow room for others to think critically without the leader’s opinion shaping the solution. It also requires leaders to ask thoughtful questions and encourage a culture of curiosity and critical thinking.
Original article published in LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/leading-questions-solutions-sondra-radcliffe/
How is it that some people are able to rise above their circumstances while others seem to let their current circumstances dictate their future?
I don’t know about you but I’ve been inspired by the way some entrepreneurs have pivoted to keep their businesses running during quarantine such as the pastry chef who started teaching virtual cooking classes, the personal trainer that started offering online workouts, and the winery that started virtual tasting rooms. I love to see people’s creativity, resilience, and triumph, don’t you?
Maybe these stories speak to us because of the triumph over obstacles a common storyline we see over and over in books and movies and don’t we love to celebrate the real-life stories of overcomers like JK Rowling, Oprah, Bethany Hamilton, and Michael Oher?
We find hope in their stories when we’re facing rocky times of our own. We think “if they overcame that, I can overcome this” and we find the strength to keep going. Now more than ever we need to be taking steps to develop resilience in our homes and our workplaces.
Resilient people are better equipped and able to adapt to change, persevere through the pivots, and recover from setbacks and failures.
Resilient organizations are 1.2x more capable of responding to the competitive environment, 3.2x more prepared to anticipate and react to change, and have 4.6x more leader engagement and retention (Global Leadership Forecast 2018).
The good news is, resilience can be learned, cultivated, and honed; it’s not an inherited trait. Here are four practices I use in my home and at my workplace to develop resilience in the people I lead.
1. Define (or redefine) your narrative. How you see yourself is critical to the story’s ending. Do you see yourself as the victim resigned to accept the hand you’ve been dealt or do you see yourself as the protagonist who overcomes their present circumstances and forges on to the next obstacle?
The stories we tell ourselves about who we are shapes our actions. Decide today that you are not a product of your circumstances –both you are your circumstances are changeable. Think of one thing you can do to begin to move out of your present circumstances and take the first step.
2. Embrace failure as an opportunity to learn. I think too many companies punish failure instead of using it as an opportunity to grow stronger, more resilient leaders. I’m not talking about ‘bet the company’ kind of risks but I do think we need to be more encouraging of measured risk-taking and embrace failure as a learning opportunity. FAIL is not the F word.
FAIL is simply the First Attempt In Learning. I love the question Sarah Blakely asks her children, “What have you tried to fail at this week?”
In our family we try to encourage our children to take age-appropriate risks and we try very hard not to rescue them from the consequences of their actions. When they get frustrated by failure we remind them of all the things they didn’t do well the first time (like riding a bike) but later mastered with hard work and perseverance.
We also take the opportunity to show them examples of people who failed before reaching the pinnacle of their success. Michael Jordan didn’t make the varsity basketball team the first year he tried out. Rather than giving up he used the setback to fuel his comeback, doubled down on his workouts and practice, and made the varsity team the following year.
So, what have you tried to fail at lately? How are you using your setbacks to fuel your comeback?
3. Avoid the urge to rescue. I find this is sometimes easier to do with my children than with my employees.
When leaders rush in with the solution we rob our employees of the learning opportunity and the sense of accomplishment that comes from struggling through a problem to get to the solution. We need to guide our teams, provide advice, direct them toward resources and people who can help them work through the problem (such as subject matter experts), and ask thought-provoking questions but we should not rush in with the solution.
4. Find the right tribe. Who are the voices in your head?
Jim Rohn said “You’re the average of the five people you spend the most time with,” so I’ll ask you: who is speaking into your life? Are they encouraging the greatness in you or are they allowing you to wallow in your present circumstances and settle for less than a fully-lived life? We always tell our kids “if you want to soar with the eagles, you can’t hang with the turkeys.”
Consider J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and Henry Ford, the tycoons of the early American economy. These leaders consciously surrounded themselves with like-minded leaders forming mastermind groups under the premise that by joining minds their collective wisdom and experience could be leveraged to help each individual member think bigger, improve their ideas, and further their performance.
Are you surrounding yourself with people who have overcome obstacles and will support you as you work to overcome your circumstances or are you sitting with the group that continually complains about their life circumstances but fails to take any action to change them?
In an environment where change is constant and stress is heightened resilience helps us cope, adapt, and carry on. “On the other side of a storm is the strength that comes from having navigated through it. Raise your sail and begin.” George S. Williams
Original article published in LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/resilience-key-rising-above-your-circumstances-sondra-radcliffe/
At the end of 2019, my family and I took a mini-vacation to the mountains with the intent of having a couple of days to do a digital detox, reflect on 2019, plan for 2020, and spend some quality time together.
The last quarter of 2019 roared by as quickly as the months before it. Business travel, end-of-year school events, choir concerts, shopping, decorating, baking, and the surge of activity that leads up to Christmas had left us all longing for a few days without structure, commitments, or a long list of things that needed to get done.
Over the course of the next few days in between family games and a lot of Hallmark Christmas movies, I took time to inventory 2019 and set my vision, goals, and strategy for 2020.
I don’t know about you but COVID-19 was not part of my plan! Nonetheless, here I am, navigating working from home, homeschooling four kids, trying to figure out how to make the most of birthdays and graduation that will happen while we’re in quarantine, and trying to help our high school senior navigate the college admission process and uncertainty around the fall semester.
I’ve been doing this now for seven weeks. The first two weeks were supposed to be our Spring Break but plans changed as restrictions were placed on where we could go and what we could do. Spring Break then morphed into ‘distance learning’ and we adjusted to homeschooling and working from home which will last through the end of the school year.
As a change leader and someone who has experienced a lot of change in the past 18 months including an acquisition, two spin-offs and a merger, I approached this pivot with the same mindset, tools, and processes I have used to successfully manage other pivots and transitions. Here are my 10 tips to tame the chaos.
If you know me, you know that I’m a planner. I plan out our vacations (complete with a spreadsheet of options for activities to avoid the pointless exchange of “What do you want to do? I don’t know, what do you want to do”).
I have a plan for my career. I even planned the birth of my oldest daughter so that she would be born in the narrow space of time between my law school graduation and when I took the bar exam. But, as John Steinbeck said in Of Mice and Men “even the best-laid plans of mice and men go astray.”
We can’t always control our circumstances but we remain in control of our attitude, and our attitude influences our response. Moreover, if you’re a parent, your attitude sets the tone for your children’s response.
This goes hand-in-hand with the first point. If I’m going to show up in a positive way for my family, my employees, and my colleagues and model the right attitude I need to prioritize self-care.
If you’ve ever been on an airplane before you’ve no doubt heard the instruction to put on your own oxygen mask before helping others with theirs. Why?, because you can’t help others if you’re passed out from lack of oxygen.
The same concept applies here. I need to ensure I’m practicing good self-care so that I can help others. For me this means I get outside in nature and walk every morning. This exercises my heart, my lungs, and my muscles but it also provides me with quiet time to set my intention and my attitude for the day.
I also drink a lot of water (and tea) throughout the day. This serves two purposes: first, it hydrates my body, and second, it keeps me moving throughout the day.
If you find it hard to make time for exercise, consider habit-stacking. For example, every time I get up to go to the bathroom, (because that happens frequently when you’re drinking a lot of water), I try to do some body-weight exercises like lunges, pull-ups, push-ups, or a plank before I sit back down to work. I’m a fan of burst exercises because I don’t always have time for a full workout but I can always find time for a few reps here or there throughout the day.
I can’t overstate the importance of this one. Communication is fundamental to successfully navigating change.
There is a lot of uncertainty right now and your employees and your family need you to communicate regularly with them. I am purposeful in establishing frequent meetings with my team (either in groups or one-on-one) to flow-down information and engage in a dialogue with them so I know how they and their families are doing, what they are struggling with, how I can help them, and what questions/concerns they might have.
I don’t always have the answers they’re looking for and sometimes I can’t share all the information I have, but they know if I know something and I can share it I will and that goes a long way toward building trust. Nobody likes to be left in the dark.
This also applies in the context of family. One of the positive benefits of COVID-19 is that families are spending more time together. It’s equally important that we’re having age-appropriate conversations with our children about what’s happening and taking the time to understand their thoughts, feelings, fears, disappointments, and concerns.
Life doesn’t look the same as it did seven weeks ago and your schedule probably looks a little different post-COVID than it did pre-COVID. That’s okay.
Make adjustments where you need to but try to maintain a regular schedule to the best of your ability. I still get up before 5 am but I allow the kids to sleep until 8 am on weekdays since they no longer have to be at school at a certain time. This allows me to get some work done in the morning before they wake and keeps our family on a manageable schedule.
If I did not impose this structure our younger kids would be up at day-break and our teenagers would sleep until noon (or later) then want to stay up until the wee hours of the morning doing their school work, watching TV, or playing video games.
This schedule ensures that the kids are getting their work done when their teachers are available to help them, increases family time together at the end of the day once we’ve all finished our work/school-work and provides predictability and structure, especially for the younger kids who are used to following a certain sequence of activities in the classroom.
While I don’t micro-manage our older kids, our youngest (1st grade) requires more support and engagement. By writing down the schedule at the start of the week, she knows the expectation, knows what she needs to complete, and knows when I’m available to help her.
You have to know your destination but there are many ways to get there. Be flexible where you can and adjust as needed.
When we first started homeschooling I wrote out a daily schedule that accommodated my calendar, scheduling learning activities for our youngest around my conference calls and meetings but the daily changes to her schedule were too disruptive and she struggled with the lack of consistency. As she sat at our kitchen table singing a little song she had learned at school “the first thing we do is always the same, we take out our pencil, and write our name, number, and date” I realized that I needed to make some adjustments.
We restructured our weekdays so that they follow a consistent schedule. She and I sit down at the end of each week and talk about the week ahead and plan the week’s schedule together. Then, each day I go over when I’m going to be on calls and when I’m available to help her.
As a manager, I need to keep this in mind where my employees are concerned as well. They know when they can reach me and we communicate about times we will be offline to take care of family or other needs. We’re flexible in meetings where we can be and how employees structure their days but clear on the expectations and the deadlines.
Time blocking is one of the key practices that help me get it all done.
If you aren’t familiar with the practice, here’s how it works. First, I am intentional (where I can be) in how I schedule things. I try to group or schedule similar activities together (meetings for example). Then, I block out time on my calendar where I am not available for meetings so that I have uninterrupted time to accomplish tasks or activities that require focus.
This also allows me to manage my energy levels in addition to my time. For example, I am the sharpest in the morning so I try to protect that time for complex or creative work that requires focus. This is also the quietest time of the day at my house. The kids are usually sleeping but if they wake early, they know they can have free-time or watch TV until it’s time to start their studies at 8 am.
In contrast, I have less energy and less ability to focus (both internally and externally), in the afternoon so I typically try to focus on administrative tasks, answering emails, and less complex work for these periods but sometimes this too requires an adjustment.
Since the temperature is now over 100 degrees in Arizona, I’ve been working on our patio in the afternoon while the kids swim. Using time blocks allows me to get my meetings and calls done in the morning and work quietly at the table in the afternoon while the kids swim.
We are an "always on" society but we don’t need to be. You control your email not the other way around. Set aside time blocks during the day to check and respond to email then turn it off.
This allows you to be fully present in the meeting you’re in or focus completely on the task at hand without distraction. While we all think we’re good at multi-tasking, the cold, hard truth is we’re not! I’ve been in meetings where informal culture or the leader hosting the meeting had a “no device” rule and the engagement and productivity that comes out of those meetings is so much higher than a meeting with a dozen half-interested individuals checking their emails or working on other projects.
The same concept applies when you’re working to complete a task. Think about it; add up all those tenths of seconds from switching back and forth between email and whatever it is you’re working on and the time adds up. According to the American Psychological Association, the result can be a 40% drop in productivity. You control this so take charge and manage it so that it works for you not against you.
While we’re talking about distractions I want you to consider keeping a pad of paper nearby as a location for your brain dump--you know, all the thoughts that come up throughout the day like “remember to send out mom’s birthday card” or “I forgot cotton balls at the store and my kid needs them for their science project next week” or “don’t forget to schedule a meeting with X to talk about Y”.
Whatever it is, write it down on your brain dump pad and deal with it later. At the end of each day, I set aside time to review my brain dump and figure out what I need to do with each item on it.
Some of those items may end up tomorrow’s “today-list” (we’ll talk more about that in a moment); some I may take care of as I’m reviewing my list (such as sending out a calendar notice for a meeting with someone), and others items I put on my to-do list.
So what’s the difference between a today-list and a to-do list you may be asking. My today list contains my three priorities for the day. That’s it; three things I am going to prioritize and commit to getting done that day. All the other stuff that has to get done goes on my to-do list.
Last week our youngest was struggling to get her schoolwork done. She needed to write a paragraph using first, next, then, last. She procrastinated, whined, negotiated, and tried every other trick in the book to avoid doing the work.
Shortly thereafter she asked me if I would make her a fruit smoothie for a snack. I suggested that she write out instructions for me on how to make the perfect smoothie using first, next, then, last and she jumped at it. Throughout the week we found other ways to incorporate fun into our learning like planting a DIY garden as part of her science learning on the plant life cycle.
This also works with older kids (we set up an investment account for our kids on Robinhood to teach them about the stock market and investing) and employees.
Before COVID we would schedule employee engagement activities (a ballgame, or an outing to Top Golf) with employees periodically. It was a great opportunity to get to know each other outside of work and bond as a team. Now we’re all quarantined in our homes and the only connection we have to each other is through video conferencing.
Turn the camera on! Use this opportunity to see your employees face-to-face and engage with them. As their children or pets come into the room take the opportunity to ask how they’re doing in quarantine. Set time aside to just talk, not only about work but about other things as well.
Some of the best advice I ever received was to stop measuring work-life integration on a short-term basis.
More often than not you end up feeling like you failed in one area or the other if you try to measure it on a daily basis. Some days the scale tips in favor of work (like when I’m working on a project with a short deadline); other days the scale tips in favor of home (like when I’m home with a child who can’t stop throwing up).
You can do both well, but you’ve got to play the long game. For example, look at your calendar over the span of a month and see how well you did at dividing your time among your priorities. Act, assess, adjust, and repeat.
Original article published in LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/taming-chaos-10-tips-help-you-navigate-wfh-leading-team-radcliffe/